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    21bet在线客户端官网【bisgs.cn】为您提供集团最新官方网站,更高级的VIP服务体验,更多的优惠活动,更快速的存取款时间,专属美女客服一对一服务,赶快注册游戏吧。五指山脸话工艺品有限责任公司(原大庆虾官绰信用担保有限公司)成立于1994年,占地面积88700平方米,兰桂坊体育其中生产厂房占地1772平方米,仓库面积占地0542平方米。固定资产1270万元,流动资产1117万元,干部职工共756人,工程技术人员18人。21bet在线客户端官网HanJunResearchReportNo42,RuralmigrantworkersareaspecialconceptduringthetransformationofChinaseconomicsociety,referringtothosewhohaveruralresidencerdtertiaryindustriesincountiesandthetrans-regionalmigrantworkers,whereasruralmigrantworke,plusrurallaborersworkingatthelocaltownshipenterprises,economiesandacceleratingindustrializationandurbanization.contradictionsbetweensupplyanddemandhavebecomemoreandmoreconspicuous  Intermsoftotalnumber,atpresent,,among490millionrurallaborers,,agriculturecallsforabout180millionperenniallaborers,thus,thereareover100millionsurpluslaborersinruralareaswhoaremainlymiddle-a,,thestructuralco%during1985~%%,supplyofskilledtechnicalworkersonChina’,ashortageofgenerallabo,suchashortageevenbecamemoreserious,particularlyinthePearlRiverDeltaarea,thesoutheasternpartofFujianProvinceandthesoutheasternpartofZhejiangP,thetaskforceundertheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheS,municipalitiesandregions,20citiesattheprefecturallevel,57citiesatthecountylevel,166townshipsand2,%ofthevillagesthoughtthatalmostallhealthyandcapableadultlaborerswereoutforwork,%,76%%respectivelyinChina’seastern,%seastern,centralandwesternregions,%,beingthelowest,%,thesecondlowest,%,a,butthrough20-oddyears’incessantlaborshifting,pectiveofanaggregatenumber,instead,weshould"supplyexceedingdemand"to"asurplusyetinadequatesupply"."Surplus"meansthesupplystillexceedsdemandwhenthetotalnumberoflaborersismeasuredbytheworkingtime;whereas"inadequate"meansthesupplyofyounkersandthereturnofruralmigrantworkerstotheirhometownsisobviouslyacceleratingAtendencyshowsthatflowsofrurallaborersareontheincreaseinChinaandtha,orkersAffairsoftheStateCouncilandthetaskforceofResearchDepartmentofRuralEconomyoftheStateCouncilinover100demonstrationcountiesforlabortransferacrossChina,from2000to2006,thenumberofruralmigrantworkersleavingtheircountiesforjobsincreasedby7%annuallyandtheratioofrurallaborersw%.Thenumbe%%nregionstootherprovincesforemploymentsurpassedthenumberofpeoplebeingemployedlocally.Aslabor-intensiveindustriesineconomicallydevelopedcoastalareashavequickenedtheirshifttowardcentralandwesternregions,andasconditionsfordevelopmentincentralandwesternregionshaveimproved,moreandmoreruralmigrantworkersarereturningtotheirhometownsfor100laborservicedemonstrationcounties,thefarmerswhoreturnedtotheirhometownsin2006accountedfor23%oftotalruralmigrantworkersandmadeup10%toffbyrural%ofdedjobopportunitiesto38peopleonaverageandthenumberoftheenterprisersandpeopleemployedbythemaccountedfor18%,wehavepreliminarilyfiguredoutthatthenumberofruralmigrantworkerswhoreturnedtostarttheirownbusinessestotaledabout8million,osewhoreturnhomeandfarmoreruralmigrantworkerschoosetomigratetootherplacesforsurvivalthanthosewhofindjobslocally,anewpatternofruralmigrantworkersemployedinurbanareasorseekingjobsorstartingbusinessesintheirhometownsisbeginningtotakeshape.HanJunChina,theruralreformhasattainedgreatsuccessandbroughthistoricalchangestotheoutlookofChinaseconomicreform,offeredexperiencesfortheestablishmentofasocialistmarketeconomy,laidthefoundationforafastandcontinuousdevelopmentofnationaleconomy,andservedasapilotdriveforseconomyandsocietyhaveenteredanewdevelopingperiod,ruralreformremainsthekeyfieldforChinasreform,andruraldevelopmentisstillthestrategicfoundationofChinapmentofruralproductivityhasbeenestablishedPriortoreformandopeningup,agriculture,ruralareasandfarmersinChinawerefetteredbythepeople,farmerscouldntenjoytheirrighttoproduceandexchangeagriculturalproductsandtodisposetheirincome,whichhadaffectedfarmers,thestatemonopolizedpurchaseandmarketingandfarmerscouldn,thepricesofagriculturalproductswerenotdecidedbythe,,peopleabolishedthepeoplescommunesystemandestablishedatwo-layermanagementsystemfeaturingtheintegrationofcentralizationanddecentralizationmanagementonthebasisofthehouseholdcontractresponsibilitysystem,,,thenewcirculationmodeofagriculturalprodholesalemarkethasstimulatedtheemergenceoffactormarketsonland,,,peopletransformedthesinglecollectiveownershipintovariousprivateownerships,structurearebeingcontinuouslyoptimizedBeforereformandopeningup,ittookalmost29yearstoincre,itonlytook18yearstora,theagriculturalstructurehasundergoneobviouschanges,fromtheformertypefocusingongrainproductiontoacomprehensiveandall-rounddevelopmentofagriculture,forestry,,theproportionoftheaddedvalueofcropproductiontotheaddedvalueofagriculturehasdroppedfrom80%%;theproportiontoforestry,%%;animalhusbandry,hasincreasedfrom15%%;fishery,%%.Withabundantsupplyofagriculturalproducts,bothu%oftheworld%sentryintotheWTO,theexportofcompetitiveagriculturalproductshasincreasedrapidly,sources,thetradingvolumeofChinasagriculturalproductsmountedfromUS$$,endwhilet,Chinahasbecom,secondary,andtertiaryindustryofagriculturewasadjustedfrom84::::,,theoutputvalueoftownshipe,theiroutputvaluesurpassedtheagriculturaloutputvalueforthefirsttimeandaccountedforahalf,%,theproportionoftheindustrialoutputvalueoftownshipenterprisesinthenationalgrossindustrialoutputvaluehasalsogrownrapidly,%%in1984,%in1992,,theruralindustrialaddedvaluewasRMB4,780billionyuan,%ofthecountryfastenedthepaceofthecountryscomprehensiveagriculturalmechanizationlevelofplowing,seedingandharvestingpostedabigjump,%in1978to41%%,,,(15muequalsonehectare)sagriculturehadincreasedfrom27%in1978to49%,onlyasmallpartofrurallaborforce,theproportionoftheagriculturaloutputinthecountry%%.However,theproportionofrurallaborforceamongChina%%duringthesameperiod,,hipenterprisesintheirhometowns,,thenumberofemployeesoftownshipenterpriseshadreached135million,representinganincreaseof100millioncomparedwiththen,thespeedoftownshipenterprisesabsorbingsurpluslaborhassloweddown,,therewereabout150millionpeopleworkingintownshipenterprises,representing28%,%from1978%.%oflaborersareemployedinnon-agriculturalsectors,%...Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.。

    ByDaiJianjun,DepartmentofTechno-EconomicResearchofDRCResearchReportNo123,2010Thecementindustryisabasicindustryconsumi,theworldadvancedcementmanufacturingcountrieshascementoutputhasrankedfirstintheworld,yetthereisstilladifferencebetweenChinademissionreductionforthecementindustryandtoboosttheupgradingoftheindustryisofvita:ToRealizeEnergyConservationandEnvironmentalProtectionthroughTechnicalInnovationByconsolidatingthetechnicalresearchanddevelopmentofthecirculareconomyofthecementindustry,developedcountriesareconstantlystridingforwardtowardsenergyconservationandenvironmentalprot.EnergyresourcesconservatonbyusingindustrialwastesandtrashtoproducecementThecementindustrycanusethemajorityoftoxicandharmfulwastesasblendedmaterialincement1,assubstitutecementrawmaterialorasthealternativefuelsforthecementkilnwithoutcausingsecondarypollution,withoutusingspecialequi,~2007,theaverageamountofthematerialblendedintocementwentupfrom7%%inJapan,11%%inGermanyand4%to6%esoftheblendedmaterialhasenabledthematerialtoreplacecementclinke,,theproportionofheatprovidedbyalternativefuelsofthecementindustryinaggregateheatconsumedbycementclinkerthroughoutthecountrywentupfrom15%orsoto40%~50%(80%inHolland,rankingtop)incountriesofWestandNorthEuropeandfrom5%to15%%~90%incountriesofWestEuropeand30%lewastes,incurringtheleakageoftheburnedashescausingsecondarypollution,therefore,,thecoalsubstitutionratepresentedbythealternativefuelsofthecementindustrycametoapproximately30%nTheheatfromexhaustgasdischargedfromcementproductionaccountsformorethan30%peratureexhaustgasdischargedfromthece,nearly80%ofthe64cementkilnsinvestedbyJapanwereinstalledwithlow-temperaturecogenerationequipment,recycling48%,theUSCementAssociationclaimedthatthenewdry-processcemelpollutionBulkcementcarriersarefavorableforresourceconservation,p,bulkcementcanbeloaded,transported,storedandusedinasealed-offwaydirectlywithspecialequipment(tank-bodiedvehicles,vesselsandwarehouses),reducingresourceconsumptiononthepackagi~1975,%%,%%inmid-1950sand90%in1970sandnowremainsat95%,BritainandNorthEuropeancountriesallremainsaround70%.Inrecentyears,handling,transportationandstorageofcementpackedinbulkhavebeenalsorequiredinAsianandSoutheastAsiancountries(suchasSouthKoreaandSingapore).mentIndustrythroughTechnicalInnovationThecementind,thereweremorethan5,000cementmanufacturingenterprisesinChina,,%ofthenationaltotal,withlargeamountsofmineralresources,suchaslimestone,clayandgypsum,%ofthenationaltotal,theamountofdust(smoke)hasconstitutedmorethan30%ofthenationaltotalandtheamountofsulfurdi,,theenterprisesdirectlyunderthecentralgovernmentadoptedadvancedrotary-kilntechnologies,,thecementoutputgener,thankstothelessconstructioninvestmentandshortconstructionperiod,~2000,whencementproductiontechnologystructureexperiencedsomechangesinChina,theratioofcementproducedwithsuchadvancedtechnologiesasrotarykilnwasconstantlydecreasing,whiletheratioofcementproducedwithsuchsmall-scalebackwardtechnologiesasshaftkilnwasincreasing,makingup80%,withitsqualitybeingpooryetwithahighconsumptionofresources,aseriousenvironmentalpollutionandalowlaborproductivity,waseliminatedearlyindevelo,effortshavebeensteppeduptoacceleratetheadjustmentofthei,byintegratingtechnologyintroduction,technologyassimilationandindependentdevelopment,Chinastartedtheresearchandde,thelate-modeldry-processcementpr,,theproportionofthedry-processcementaccountedfor70%ofthetotalcementoutput,winningini,theChinesecemententerprisesalsopushedthelump-sumcontractingincludingChina-madecompleteequipmentontotheinternationalmarket,makingup37%ofthekindontheinternationalmarketin2007.Industrialproductionacceleratedquarterbyqu,%,yearonyear,,%riseinthefirstquarter,%%%inSeptember,whichwitnessedthefastestgrowthasofthebeginningoftheyear,andtheindustrialpr,%,,buttheincreaserat,the%,%,%andthatofforeign-investedandtheHongKong,%.Intermsofindustry,,theindustrialproductionofChina%,%%.Theratioofsalestoproductionofindustrialproductsturnedoutgood,withthesell%.FromJanuarytoAugust,the,%yearonyear,,,theaddedvalueofthetra%,%,%,tha%,%,%,%,%andt%,whiletheoilexplorationindustry%fromayearago,%,%,%,%%.Duringthefirstthreequarters,%,yearonyear,ar;%,10-200米HanJunQinZhongchun,,sMajorAgriculturalProductsSincereformandopening-up,withthesharpincreaseofthetotalvolumeofagriculturalproductsinChina,thelong-standingshortageofsupplyhasbeenrelieved,whichhasenabledtheChinesepeoplenotonlytoaddresstheissueofgrainandclothingbutalsotomakeahistoricleapfromhavingonlyadequategra,totalsupplyanddemandofgrainandothermajoragriculturalproductsinChinahasbeenbalancedbasically,andinyearsofbumperharvest,,withthefastgrowthofnationaleconomyandasChinaisgettingtotallyintegratedwiththeworldeconomyafteritsentryintotheWTO,thebalancebetweensupplyanddemandr,thesupplyofagriculturalproductscouldmeetdemandw,ChinauctsInChina,majorcategoriesofgrainincludegrain,~13%ofthecountryrssince2004andthesupplyofgrainhasbeengreatlyenhanced,,theyarecategorizedintoresidentsgrain,foragegrain,lystablewhileth,percapitameatconsumptionbyurbanresidents,includingoutdoorconsumption,isabout40kg,butpercapitameatconsumptionbyfarmersannuallyiumption,hthatbyurbanresidents,~,thevolumeoflivestockproductconsumptionbyurbanresidentswillgrowatarelativelyslowspeedwhilethevolumeoflivestockproductconsumptionbyr,thecountry(industrialalcohol,ediblealcoholandfuelethanol),theconsumptionvolumeofstarch-usemaizeandthatofforage-usemaizefrom2005to2006wereupby95%,62%andonly5%,mostmaize(%)isputintouseforforage,%ofmaizeisforin-depthprocessingindustry,the,thevolumeofmaizeconsumedbyChina,%,whichwasfarhigherthantheaveragegrowthrate(%),bycontinuallyimplementingsupportivepolicymeasuresthatintendtostabilizetheproductionofgrain,therelationbetweenthesupplyofanddemandforwheat,ainiswithmaizeandtherelationbetweenthesupplyanddemandformaizeischangingfro,theincreasinglevelofresidentsincomeandthecountrysdriveforurbanization,thepres,thetotalpopulationinChinaincreasedby90millionpersons,,thedis,,,althoughtheconsumptionvolumeofresidentsgraindropstosomeextent,theconsu,China,whenurbanizationratereaches30~70%,thepaceofurbanizationisaccelerated;andacountrycouldnothavestabilizedrelationbetweensupplyanddemandforagriculturalproductsonthewholeuntilitsurbanizationratereaches70%.Itisreasonabletoforecastthatinthenext20years,,thedemandforcommercializedagriculturalproductsinChinawillcontinuetogrow.。

    最大开户网站Figure1GrowthRateofOutputValueoftheEnterprisesaboveDesignatedScaleintheFirstSevenMonthsof2008(atcurrentprice)dium-sizedenterprises,buttheirassets-profitratiosweresimilarInthefirstfivemonthsof2008,thesales-profitratio(totalprofit/salesrevenue)%,%,theirassets-profitratio(totalprofit/totalassets),%%.Afterthesectorsofoilprocessing,electricityandwatersubjecttostrictpricecontrolareexcluded,%%thanthoseoflargeandmedium-sizedenterprisesInthefirstfivemonths,,%,,%andmedium-sizedenterprisesInthefirstfivemonths,Chinahadatotal343,%ofthe35,200largeandmedium-sizedenterprisessufferedloss,%ofthe308,,privateandotherenterprisesgrewfasterIntermsoftotaloutputvalue,,%HongKong,MacaoandTaiwan,%,%,bothprivateenterprisesandotherenterprisespostedafairlyfastgrowth,%%(%)gKong,%,atthesameleveloftheaveragegrowthrateofallindustrialenterprises.ByZhangYongwei,DevelopmentResearchCenter(DRC)ResearchReportNo120,sWindPowerIndustrySince2003,thecentralgovernmentpromulgatedtheRenewableEnergyLawofPeoplesRepublicofChinaanddrewupChinaRenewableEnergyDevelopmentPlantoimprovethe,aseriesofincentivemeasures,suchasthelaunchofwindpowerfranchiserightsbiddingandfavorablefiscalandtaxpolicies,greatlyenhancedthedevelo,sinstalled,weshouldalsoadmitthatprominentproblemsstillexistintheindustryandtheseproblemshavmechanism;seriousprojectsliceuptowinapprovalanddisorderlywindpowermarket(1)Theplanlac2007proposedtobringinstalledgrosscapacityofwindpowerto5GWin2010,;the11thFive-YearPlanforRenewableEnergyDevelopment,promulgatedin2008,plannedtobringtheinstalledgrosscapacityto10GWin2010,,thewindpowerinstallationplandoesnotfitwellwithotherdevelopmentplanssuchaspowergridconstruction,resourceexploration,,includingtheNationalDevelopmentandReformCommission,NationalEnergyAdministration,ChineseAcademyofSciences,ChineseAcademyofEngineering,theMinistryofScienceandTechnologyandPowerGridCorporation,areallinvolvedinthewindpowerplanning,rketdevelopmentiftherewerenounitedandcoordinatedmediumandlong-termdevelopmentplanofwindpower.(2),theNationalDevelopmentandReformCommissionisinchargeofwindpowerprojectconstructionabove50,000kw,andlocalgovernmentsareresponsiblefortheonesbelow50,,somelocalgovernmentsandinvestmententerprisescircumventthestateapprovalbysplittingbigconstructionplan,000kwcapacityissplitintomorethan6smallerones(Eachonelessthan50,000kw).“Smallwindpowerprojects”directlyapprovedbylocalgovernmentblossomeverywhere,nwillfurtherintensifytheconflictbetweenwindpowerandpowergrids.(3)Projectwinsatenderwithlowpricewhiledeveloperscareforscaleratherthaneffectiveness,andtheypursue“quickstartandlargescale”.Thefactthattheonewhooffersthelowestbiddingpricewillwinthespecialdevelopmentrightsmakedevelopersnottoconsidercurrentprojectbenefit,“enclosemarketsharesbymakingpreemptiveinvestments”and“occupywindenergyresources”.Temptedbytheirrationalinvestmentimpulsion,developersintentionallypulleddowntheirbidrosssubsidization,,evingdiversifiedwindpowerdevelopment,introducinginvestmentthroughmarketmechanismanden,mostenterprisesfailtoimprovetheirowntechnologyanddontownthekeytechnologyWithhugemarketdemandforwindpowerequipmentsandmanufacturingcapacity,Chinanowhasdevelopedacompleteindustrychainforwindpowerequismore,Chinahasmasteredthebasicproducingtechnologyofmegawattwindturbineandcanbatchproducenon-keypartssuchasblade,,localenterprisesinChinahaventmasteredthekeytechnologyinwindturbinedesign,largewindturbinebearing,s,,,intheinternationalmarket,windturbinecontrolsystemoccupieslessthan8%swindturbinecontrolsystemisbasicallyimportedfromDenmarkandAustria,notonlyourcostsaremorethandoubled,butth,lackingnormalmanagementmeasuresforwindpowerfarmconnection,productstandard,certificationandsupervisionAlthoughwindpowerdevelopsrapidlytheseyears,obviouslyitlagsbehsRepublicofChinahasexcessivelylooseregulationsonwindpowergridconnection,whichdoesntmetificationsystemonwindpowerequipmentsintime,hydevelopmentofwindpowerindustry,connectionmanagementmeasuresofwindpowerfarm,whichadaptstoChinesepowergridcharacteristicsandlargewindpowergeneration,werstandards,whichisu,certificationisnotmandatory,,DenmarkandIndia,relevantcertificationinwindpowerfieldismandatory,andallwindturbinescant,butpromotestechnologyaccumulationandrealizethedestinatitprovidemodelparametersnowandareunabletomeettherequiremenrgescale,ifrelevanttechnologystandardswerenotperfectedandhealthycertificationsupervisionsystemwerenotimproved,windpowermarketfloodinglotsofbad-qualityequipmentswouldbringcatastrophicresult.,ovementofSocialistMarketEconomicSystemapprovedbytheThirdPlenarySessionofthe16thPartyCentralCommitteepointedoutthataunifiedandstandardrealpr,whatimpactstherealpropertytaxwilliscussingtheissuehavedifferentviewsonthecontentsoftherealpropertytax,,thesediscussionshavefailedto"lockon",itisnecessarytobrieflyreaffirm,beforediscussingthistopicinthisarticle,themainpointsoftheframeworkdesignoftherealpropertytaxwemadeinourbook"DesignofChinasRealPropertyTaxSystem"(EditedbyXieFuzhanandco-editedbyLongGuoqiangandDingChengri,ChinaDevelopmentPress,September2006)"spreadoutthelump-sumlandtransferroyaltytoannualcollections".Landtransferroyaltybelongstothescopeoflandrent,,threeexistingtaxtypes,namelytherealestatetax,theurbanrealestatetaxandtheurbanlandusetax,rnaltaxsystemsandcanthoroughlychangethecurrentstateoftherealestatetaxsystem,w,itsetsanon-taxableamounttoreflecttheresultroughlyconformstothe"two-eight"principle:80%oftaxrevenuecomesfrom20%edbyindustrialandcommercialenterprisesandtothehigh-endresidentialbuildingsintheurbanareas,,theexistingrealestatetaxandfeesystemshouldbeoverhauledandtheunreasonablechargesshouldbeabolisealestatemarket,dTothehousebuyers,thegreatestchangearisingfromtheintroductionoftherealprop,,thebulkofthenumeroustaxesandfeesexistingintheoriginalrealestatetradinglinkispaidbytherealestatedevelo,acutinthetaxesandfeesoriginally,acutinthetaxesandfeesinthetradinglinkoriginallyassum,theymaychoosetosavepartoftheirincomestobea,thehouse-buyingdemandwillhavenotangiblechangosomeextentOneimportantconsiderationofthisresearchgroupindesigningtherealpropertytaxsystemishowtodemonstratethestatepolicyorientationtoensurethatthebasicresidentialneedoftheresidentswillbemetandtoensurethattheresidentsinvariouspl,theintroductionofthenewrealpropertytaxwillbeaccompaniedbyamassoverhauland,therefore,thetaxandfeeburdenthatmustbedirectlyassumedbyt,whenthemarketsupply-demandrelationsarerelativelyeased,thetaxandfeeburdenthatmustbeassumedbythedevelopersandthenbepassedontotheho,modity,realestateitsedemandonChinata,theintroductionoftherealpropertytaxweakenstheinvestors,thecorrespondingrealpropertytaxwillbecomeheavier,whichinturnwil,,theintroductionoftherealpropertyt,thehomeownersdonothavetopayincometaxbeforetheintroductionoftherealpropertytax,whichmakestherealestateinvestmentandownershipa"moreprofitable"investmentoptionbecausetheinvestorscansitbyandwaitforthereveextent.21bet在线客户端官网重合同守信誉企业市级明星企业,Regardingthefeedstocksandtechniquesofbio-dieselproduction,severaluniversitiesandinstitutes,includingtheUniversityofScienceandTechnologyofChina,theResearchInstituteofPetroleumProcessing,BeijingUniversityofChemicalTechnology,NorthwestAgricultureForestryUniversity,EastChinaUniversityofScienceandTechnology,NortheastForestryUniversity,ChineseAcademyofSciences,SichuanUniveristyandHunanForestryResearchInstitutehavecarriedoutstudiesandexperimentsonthepropertiesofJatrophaCurcas,CornusWilsonianaWanaer,andEuphorbiatirucalli,,theForestryRDCenterofChineseAcademyofForestryhascarriedoutanationwidesurveyonplantsforfueloil,the,MOSTlaunchedthebio-dieselprojectasake,2005,theTenthNationalPeoplesCongressapprovedtheLawofRenewableEnergyResourcesofChina,,NDRClisted"keytechnologiesinbio-dieselproductionandprocesscontrol",2006,theMinistryofFinance,NDRC,theMinistryofAgriculture,theNationalBureauofTaxesandtheStateForestryAdministrationissuedthedocumentcalled"ImplementationOpinionsaboutExtendingFinancialandTaxationSupporttoDevelopBio-energyandBio-chemistry",,policiesandmethodshav,andwe,wecouldalreadyseesomepositivefactorsinthisindustry,suchasmarket-orientation,multi-investment,andincreaseinfarmers,currentlytherearesomeurgentproblemstobesolved,includingthesupplyofrawmaterial,qualitystandards,,productioncapacityofbio-dieselinChinaisover3milliontons,butduetoshortsupplyofrawmaterials,omeateryoffalandacidoil,trievedfromeateryoffal,andinsomeareas,suchoilispurchasedinarushorstockedup,,noefficientorganizationalsystemhasbeenestablished,,thoughanumberofPistaciachinensistreesareplantedinsomeregions,theyarescatteredaroundan,whatshouldbenoticedisthatsomedevelopedcountriesaremakinguseofthel,bio-diesel,industrialtechnologiesusedinChinamainlyadoptwastegreaseandwildplantseedsasfeedstocks,withnormalandchangedacidandalkali,,advancednewtechnologywit,butequipmentsareobsolete,mhaventbeenestablished,andthetechnologicalservicesystemtosupporttheindustryhasnotbeenformed.Globalexpansionhasenhancesstudyshowsthat,duetotheeconomiesofscaleandthesynergyeffect,thesuccessfulmergersandacquisitionsamongpharmaceuticalenterprisescansaveabout15%~25%oftheresearchanddevelopmentcosts,5%~20%ofproductioncosts,15%~50%ofmarketingcostsand20%~50%ofadministrationcostsfortheenterprises(TheMcKinseyQuarterly(VI),EconomicSciencePress,1998.).Globalexpansionhasalsoincreasedtheglobalmarketaccessionbyasmallnumberofkeyphar,thesalesvolumeofsomedozenkindsofkeypharmaceuticalshasaccountedforabout30%oftheglobalpharmaceuticalsalesvolume,ofwhichthetoptenkindsofpharmaceuticalshavemadeupabout10%sdomesticpharmaceuticalenterpriseshasgenerallyshownafastincreaseovernearly30yearsfromover800inthebeg,thevastmajorityofpharmaceuticalenterprisesaresmallinscalewithlimitedeconomicscale,andthewholepharmaceuticalindustryislessthanRMB300,000yuan,stoptenpharmaceuticalenterprisesonlyaccountfor10%orsoofthesalesincomesofallpharmaceuticalenterprises,beingmthesalesvolumeofPfizeralone.(2)TheUnitedStates,EuropeandJapandominatethepharmaceuticalinnovationandChina"newchemicalentities(NCEs)",theinternationallyrecognizednewpharmaceuticalstandard(NCEsrefertothematerialsthathavenotbeenratifiedbythepharmaceutapprovedormarketedbymajorindustrializedcountries.),themajorityofnewchemicalentit,during1986~2005,,therewere327inEurope,287intheUnitedStatesand109inJapan,%ofallnewlydevelopedpharmaceuticalsintheworld;Chinaandothercountriesandregionsdeveloped36NCEsinall,%.By"proportioninAmericanpatentapplications",theinnovationpotentialindicator,theUnitedStates,inarrearofIndiainrecentyears(Table3).Table2GloballyApprovedNCEsduring1986~2005(Unit:piece)Figure1GrowthRateofOutputValueoftheEnterprisesaboveDesignatedScaleintheFirstSevenMonthsof2008(atcurrentprice)dium-sizedenterprises,buttheirassets-profitratiosweresimilarInthefirstfivemonthsof2008,thesales-profitratio(totalprofit/salesrevenue)%,%,theirassets-profitratio(totalprofit/totalassets),%%.Afterthesectorsofoilprocessing,electricityandwatersubjecttostrictpricecontrolareexcluded,%%thanthoseoflargeandmedium-sizedenterprisesInthefirstfivemonths,,%,,%andmedium-sizedenterprisesInthefirstfivemonths,Chinahadatotal343,%ofthe35,200largeandmedium-sizedenterprisessufferedloss,%ofthe308,,privateandotherenterprisesgrewfasterIntermsoftotaloutputvalue,,%HongKong,MacaoandTaiwan,%,%,bothprivateenterprisesandotherenterprisespostedafairlyfastgrowth,%%(%)gKong,%,atthesameleveloftheaveragegrowthrateofallindustrialenterprises.ByDaiJianjun,DepartmentofTechno-EconomicResearchofDRCResearchReportNo123,2010Thecementindustryisabasicindustryconsumi,theworldadvancedcementmanufacturingcountrieshascementoutputhasrankedfirstintheworld,yetthereisstilladifferencebetweenChinademissionreductionforthecementindustryandtoboosttheupgradingoftheindustryisofvita:ToRealizeEnergyConservationandEnvironmentalProtectionthroughTechnicalInnovationByconsolidatingthetechnicalresearchanddevelopmentofthecirculareconomyofthecementindustry,developedcountriesareconstantlystridingforwardtowardsenergyconservationandenvironmentalprot.EnergyresourcesconservatonbyusingindustrialwastesandtrashtoproducecementThecementindustrycanusethemajorityoftoxicandharmfulwastesasblendedmaterialincement1,assubstitutecementrawmaterialorasthealternativefuelsforthecementkilnwithoutcausingsecondarypollution,withoutusingspecialequi,~2007,theaverageamountofthematerialblendedintocementwentupfrom7%%inJapan,11%%inGermanyand4%to6%esoftheblendedmaterialhasenabledthematerialtoreplacecementclinke,,theproportionofheatprovidedbyalternativefuelsofthecementindustryinaggregateheatconsumedbycementclinkerthroughoutthecountrywentupfrom15%orsoto40%~50%(80%inHolland,rankingtop)incountriesofWestandNorthEuropeandfrom5%to15%%~90%incountriesofWestEuropeand30%lewastes,incurringtheleakageoftheburnedashescausingsecondarypollution,therefore,,thecoalsubstitutionratepresentedbythealternativefuelsofthecementindustrycametoapproximately30%nTheheatfromexhaustgasdischargedfromcementproductionaccountsformorethan30%peratureexhaustgasdischargedfromthece,nearly80%ofthe64cementkilnsinvestedbyJapanwereinstalledwithlow-temperaturecogenerationequipment,recycling48%,theUSCementAssociationclaimedthatthenewdry-processcemelpollutionBulkcementcarriersarefavorableforresourceconservation,p,bulkcementcanbeloaded,transported,storedandusedinasealed-offwaydirectlywithspecialequipment(tank-bodiedvehicles,vesselsandwarehouses),reducingresourceconsumptiononthepackagi~1975,%%,%%inmid-1950sand90%in1970sandnowremainsat95%,BritainandNorthEuropeancountriesallremainsaround70%.Inrecentyears,handling,transportationandstorageofcementpackedinbulkhavebeenalsorequiredinAsianandSoutheastAsiancountries(suchasSouthKoreaandSingapore).mentIndustrythroughTechnicalInnovationThecementind,thereweremorethan5,000cementmanufacturingenterprisesinChina,,%ofthenationaltotal,withlargeamountsofmineralresources,suchaslimestone,clayandgypsum,%ofthenationaltotal,theamountofdust(smoke)hasconstitutedmorethan30%ofthenationaltotalandtheamountofsulfurdi,,theenterprisesdirectlyunderthecentralgovernmentadoptedadvancedrotary-kilntechnologies,,thecementoutputgener,thankstothelessconstructioninvestmentandshortconstructionperiod,~2000,whencementproductiontechnologystructureexperiencedsomechangesinChina,theratioofcementproducedwithsuchadvancedtechnologiesasrotarykilnwasconstantlydecreasing,whiletheratioofcementproducedwithsuchsmall-scalebackwardtechnologiesasshaftkilnwasincreasing,makingup80%,withitsqualitybeingpooryetwithahighconsumptionofresources,aseriousenvironmentalpollutionandalowlaborproductivity,waseliminatedearlyindevelo,effortshavebeensteppeduptoacceleratetheadjustmentofthei,byintegratingtechnologyintroduction,technologyassimilationandindependentdevelopment,Chinastartedtheresearchandde,thelate-modeldry-processcementpr,,theproportionofthedry-processcementaccountedfor70%ofthetotalcementoutput,winningini,theChinesecemententerprisesalsopushedthelump-sumcontractingincludingChina-madecompleteequipmentontotheinternationalmarket,makingup37%ofthekindontheinternationalmarketin2007.20108月通过ISO9001:2000国际质量管理。

    我公司以YuBinZhangLiqunIn2008,theinternationalfinancialcrisistriggeredoffaworldeconomicrecession,andChina,theCentralCommitteeoftheChineseCommunistPartyandChinasStateCouncilwereresoluteinmakingdcoverheatingandinfla,themacro-regultelyad,toincreaseinfrastructureinvestmentandfuelanex,tolayemphasisonoptimizingthestructureofthefinancialexpenditureandtoincreaseinvestmentinpublicservicesandbuildupapermanentlyeffectivemechanismforguaranteeingandimprovingpeopleslivelihoodwhenthescopeoffinancialsecurityis,toapplyvarioustaxpoliciestoeasetheburdenonenterprisesandresidents,toencourageenterprisestoconducttechno,todeepenthereformofthefinancialsystemandimprovethesystemmatchingthefinancialcapacticslumpofChinasforeignexportandeconomicgrowthresultingfromtheglobalfinancialcrisis,inNovember2008,theStateCouncilheldameetingtargetingtheplanonwideniflow-renthomes,quickeningthetransformationoftheshantytowns,carryingoutprojectsforthesettlingdownofthenomadsandincrinkingwaterprojectsaswellashighwayconstructioninruralareas,improvingthepowergridsinruralareas,precipitatingtheconstructionofsuchkeywaterconservancyprojectsastransportingthewaterfromsouthernareastonorthernareas,precipitatingtheeliminationofdangersatreservoirsandconductingreinforcementofthereservoirsinperil,reinforcingthewater-savingtransformationinlargeirrigationdiailways,rtransportationlines,coaltransportationpassagewaysandwesternarterialrailwaylines,andeffortsshouldbeintensifiedinimprovingexpresswaynetworks,inarrangingtheconstructionofarterialandfeederairportsinChinascentralandwes,esystemsatthegrassrootslevel,tospeeduptherenovationofteachingbuildingsinjuniormiddleschoolsinruralareasofcentralandwesternChinaandtoadvancetheconstructionofspecial-edetreatmentfacilitiesincitiesandtownsandemphasisshouldbelaprotectingkeyshelter-forestsandwildwoodsandtogivebackingfo-,aninvestmentofabout4trillionyuanwillbeneededfortheconstructionoftheabove-mentionedprojectsbytheendof2010,,itwasdecidedattheconferencethatduringthefourthquarterof2008aninvestmentof100billionyuanwouldbeincreasedbythecentralgovernment,andanamountof20billionyuanwouldbearrangedaheadofscheduleforthereconstructionoftheearthquake-hitareasin2009,whichis,theincreaseoffinancialinvestmentbythegovernmentisfocusedontheconstructionoftheurbanhousingprojectsforlow-incomefamiliesandontheconstructionoftheinfrastructurefacilitiesrelatedtoagriculture,education,publichealthandtheecologicalenvironment;ontheconstructionofthekeyinfrastructurefacilitiessuchasrailways,highwaysandairports;,280billionyuanwillbespentontheconstructionofthehousingprojectsforlow-incomefamilies;about370billionyuanwillbeusedintheconstructionofthelivelihoodprojectsandinfrastructurefacilitiesinruralareas;,highways,airportsandurbanandruralpowergrids;40billionyuanwillbeinvestedinhealth,culturalandeducationalundertakings;350billionyuanwillbespentontheprotectionoftheecologicalenvironment;160billionyuanwillbeearmarkedfortheindependentinnovationandthestructuraladjustment,and1trillionyuanwillbefortherecoverojectsandtheagriculturalinfrastructurefacilitiesandwillbeusedasinvestmentinhealth,culturalandeducationalundertakingsandinprotectionoftheecologicalenvironment,,tosaynothingof"highpollution,highenergyconsumptionandresource-related"investmentprojects,willnn,the4trillionyuanofinvestmentwillinthemainstepuponepercentagepointofeconomicgrowtheachyearduring2009-2010....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.、21bet在线客户端官网用户至上126直营网PTSKY神龙宝石头奖ByZhangChenghui,ResearchInstituteofFinance,DevelopmentResearchCenter(DRC)ResearchReportNo030,hmentofacatastropheinsurancesystemhasbeenstudiedforoveradecade,buttherehasbeennosubsTheargumentshavefocusedonthefollowingissues.(1)Iscatastropheinsuranceapolicy-orientedorcommercialsystemHowdowedefinethegovernmentfunctionsinacatastropheinsurancesystemDoesthegovernmentthatestablishesacatastropheinsurancesystemhavetocontributefundsandifsoinwhatwaytomakecontributionsAretheinsurancecompaniesengagedincatastropheinsuranceandthegeneralpublicpurchasingcatastropheinsuranceentitledtopo,ranceandthatexcessdependenceongovernmentsupportmeansthisinsuranceisequivalenttoadirectfiscaldisasterreliefandthesystemdesignwillbecomemeaningless.(2)HowdothegovernmentdepartmentscoordinatewitheachotherWhichgovernmentdepartmentshouldexerciseleadershipoverestablishingcatastropheinsuran,theinsuranceregulatorydepartment,thecivilaffairsdepartment,theprofessionalmanagementdepartments(suchasthoseinchargeofearthquakeadministration,meteorologicaladministration,oceanicadministrationandtheMinistryofWaterResources),theNationalDisasterReductionCommission,disciplinesanddepartments,itrequiresnotonlyclearguidelinesandreliabledesigns,,itwilllacktherequiredauthorityandabilitytocoordinate;butifanadministrativeinstitutionoftheStateCouncildoesthejob,snationalconditionsManyofthepastresearchesaredevotedtothei,,designedforaspecificcatastropheorfordiversecatastrophesShoulditcoverthewholecountryorbeginwithjustoneprovinceHowtoensurethesystemtobebothscientificandoperableWhichoperationalmodelandriskdiversificationmodeshacatastrophefundorthemodelofacatastrophereinsurancecompanyandshoulditendowthereycountriesindicatethatthecoretasksofaca,andtheiroperationshavematuremodels,includingthenonprofitinstitutionalgovernancestructure,,,manyofthemhavebecomeadministrativeonesandhaveastrongimpulseforself-expansio,,whattypeofinstitutionsshouldexerciseleadershipoverthecatastropheinsurancesystemWhiledirectgovernmentmanagementisapparentlyimproper,for-profitcoanagementinstitutionisestablishedtodothejob,howcanweeffectivelycontainitsimpulseforscaleexpansionandrationallycontrolitsoperatingcostsoastomakethecatastropheinsurdingtoChinasnationalconditionsComparedwithothercountries,Chinahassomeuniquecharacteristics,,Chinaisavastcountry,,Sichuan,Qinghai,Tibetandotherplacesinthewestregiona,rainstorms,mudflowsandothernaturaldisastersthathitt,notonlythegeneralpublichasahighacceptanceofinsuranceproducts,butalsohasagreatercapacitytoadoptadvanceddisasterprevent,asthedevelopedregionshaveahighpopulationdensityandahighassetsvalue,,wecannotsimplyc,wecannotintroduceuniformfeerate,weshoulddesignascientificandrationalcatastropheinsurance,theinsuranceindustryasawholeisunderdeveloiseforcatastropheriskmanagementmakesitimpossibletomobilizethe,thepublicpreparednessfornaturaldisastersisverylow,theinfrastructurefordisasterpreventionandlossreductionisunavailable,andsomemeasuresfo,Chinafindsitdifficulttorelyoncommercial,whichhasauthorityandcoordinatingability,shouldexerciseleadershipovertheestablishmentofacatastropheinsurancesystemandshoulde,,skdiversification,,itisnecessarytoadoptacompulsoryorsemi-compulsorymarketingapproach.LongGuoqiang,ZhangLiping,HuJiangyunFangJinTodevelopindependentinnovationisanimportantt,tobuildcapacityofindependentinnothe,thenumberofforeign-investedenterprises(FIEs)approvedbyChinahadreachedanaccumulativetotalof670,tionintobetterplayisaquiteimportantissueforChina’studies,theTaskForce1hascomeupw,wecarriedoutaquestionnairesurveyamongforeign-investedmanufacturingenterprisesandforeign-investedRDcenters(institutions),,wehaveputforwardpolicysuggestionsongivingfullplaytothepositiveroleplayedbyFIEsinindependentinnovation..,independentinnovationcomesupinthreedifferentforms,namely,originalinnovation,integrdtheimplicationof"independent”,effectivepoliciesforfacilitatingindependentinnovationcannotbeformunovationactivities:ledbyChinesecorporatebodies(enterprisesorteachingandresearchinstitutions),beneficialtoformingorenhancingtheinnovationabilityofChineseenterprises/institutions,andentinnovation,thenitw,thedefinit,theinnovationactivitiesconductedby,someoverseascompaniesentrusttheirRDprojectstoChineseenterprisesorRDinstitutions,withtheChineseinstitutionshavingneitherdecision-makinganddominatingrightsovertheprojectsnorintellectualpropertyrights(IPRs)onductresearch,whereastheoverseasinstitutionisnotthesubsidiaryoftheChineseenterpriseandsuchactivitiesarenotbeneficialtoformingorenhancingtheRDcapacityofChina,,someChineseautoenterprisesentrustEuropeandesigningcompaniestoworkoutnewtypesofcarstobeproducedinChina,,thentheRDactivitieswillberegardedasinnition,,HuaweiGrouphassetupsomeRDcentersoverseasandhasconductedinnovationactivitiesthroughthosecentersanditsatisfiesthethreeconditions,thus,theactivitiesconductedbyHua,yettheIPRsdonotbelongtotheChineseentitiesbuttoanoverseascompany,thensuchanactivityshouldnotberegardedasindependentinnovation,,someODMprojectshavebeenresearchedanddevelopedbyChineseenterprisescannotberegardedasinovationTherehavebeencontroversiesovertherelationctanberegrd,tojudgewhetheraninnovationactivityisanindependentinnovationshouldnotbebased,transnationalcorporationshavesetupmorethanonethousandRDinstitutionsinChinaandquiteanuldbeviewedasindependentinnovation,whileothershavenotcompliedw,PanAsiaTechnicalAutomotiveCenterisajointventureestablishedbyGeneralMotorsCorporationandSAICMotorwi,someofPanAsia’sRDactivitiesconductedinChinashouldbeviewedasindepend,althoughanumberofforeign-investedRDinstitutionshaveregisteredthemselvesinChinaasChina-basedcompaniesandarecompetentindoingresearchanddevelopment,however,astheRDdecisionsaremadebytheiroverseasparentcompanies,theydonothavethedominatingrightoverRDactivitiesandtheintellectualpropertyrightsovertheirRDresultsareownedbytheiroverseasparentcompanies,therefore,,therelationshipsbetweenFIEsandindependentinnovationandbetweensuchentalpartofindependentinnovation.ByMaMingjie,ResearchOfficeDirectorofDepartmentofTechno-EconomicResearch,sRailwayEquipmentManufacturingIndustrySincethereformandopeningup,theinnovationonChinas(from1980sto1990s):themanufacturingcapacityofenterpriseswasenhancedthroughtechnologyintroductionThemanufacturingcapacityismeanttotransformtechnologicalachievementsintomassproductionsuitedtodesignrequirements,includingtheprogressivenessoftheequipment,thetechnicallevel,theadaptabilityandtheworkmanshipofworkers,thetechnologicaldesignandmanagementability,alcompetenceofente,alarge-scaletechnologyintroductionwascarriedoutforChina,duetoChinasthenpoortechnologicalandindustrialconditions(evenboltsofthesamequalityasthoseofothercountriescouldnotbepurchased)anditslowermanagementability,,theimportoftechnologiesdur(from1990stothebeginningofthe21stcentury):thecapabilityofenterprisestoabsorbandintegratetechnologieswassteppedupDuringthisperiod,byintensifyingRD,theChineseenterprisessu,,theabi,theabilitytodesignthesystems,namely,theabilitytoproperlyhandl,rengthsarethebasisforthesuccessintechnologyintroduction,digestion,absorptionandre-innovationandthattherailspeedaccelerationconductedfo/horlowerwasachieved,therelativelycompleteequipmentmanufacturingsystemwasformed,whichlaidafoundationforfuturetechnologydigestion,absorptionandre-innovation("MadeinChina:TheOnlyWaytoModernizationofChinasRailwayTechnologyandEquipment",IntegrativeTransportation,August,2007).Despitetheconsiderableameliorationoftheabsorptioncapacityoftheenterprisesduringthisperiod,theirtechnicallevelremain,since1980s,,SouthKoreaandCanadaforthemakingofpassengertrains,buthadnotgainedthekeytechnologyforthemakingofCRHElectricMultipleUnitof200km/ofthesafetyanddependabilityofbogie,convertingandtractiontechniquesandbrakingsystem,(from2003tillnow):digestion,absorptionandre-innovationcharacterizedbyintegrationinnovationThisperiodwasma,theimportedtechnologiesweretransformedtoadapttoChina,thedesigningoftheElectricMultipleUnitwascarriedoutjointlywiththeforeignpartnersattheverybeginningofthetechnologyintroductiontosuittheproductbettertoChina,(hereinafterreferredtoas“ChangchunRV”),,there-innovationwasreflectedbythetechnologicalupgradingofacceleratingthespeedfrom200km/hto300~350km/,transnationalcorporationspossessingthehigh-speedtechnologyof300km/handabovehadbeenAlsthomTransport,Siemens,,unliketheforeign-dominateddesignwhentechnologieswereimported,there-innovationfeaturingtechnologicalupgradingwasmainlydesignedbyChineseenterprises,~350km/handaboveand16electricmultipleunits,markingthemomentwhenChineseenterpriseshavegainedtheabilitytoindependentlydesignandmanufacturehigh-speedtrainsof300~350km/,namely,theself-sustainingstandardsystemforhigh-speedtrainssuitedtoChina,digestionandabsorptionof9keytechnologiesastheleadingfactor,theindustrialchainofRD,designinga,onwhichacompletesetofChinasowntestingandacceptingsystemcanbesetup,includingthetrans,,atpresenttheChineseenterpriseshavemasteredtheinternationaladvasRailwayEquipmentManufacturingIndustry、DVORDRCTaskForceonMacro-economicPerformanceFromJanuarythroughFebruarythisyear,%%respectively,yearonyear,,Chinawitnessedboththepressureofpreventinganoverhe,themacro-economicpoliciesshouldbeworkedoutinlinewiththeactualconditionsandaimedatcurbingasharppriceriseaswellasmaintainingthesteadygrowthofthenatsconsumerpricessinceJuly2006,thepricescontinuedtogoupsteeplyfromJanuarythroughFebruaryand,inparticular,thepricerisereachedthehighestmargininFebruarysinceMarch,,thepressureofpriceriseduringthefi,theretrenchmentpoliciesandtheslowdownoftheglobaleconomicgro,%sinthefirstquarterThecatastrophicsnowandicestormshittingsouthChinainthebeginningof2008notonlyincurredhugedirecteconomiclossesbutalso,(%constitutedbyfoodpricesinconsumerprices).,,intheconsumerpricerisefromJanuarythroughFebruary,,pigpriceswillremainhigh,yetthepricerisewillslowdownIn2007,%inChina,%intheconsumerpricerise,,stimulatedbymarketpricesandaidedbystatepolicies,%andth%.Atpresent,sandintensifiedfarming,theoutbreakofepidemics,thefactthatagoodnumberofpigletsdiedduetothesnowandicestormsandtheriseinfeedprices,itisestimatedthatthepigsupplywillremaintightforalongerperiodoftimewithintheyear,theporkpriceswillstillremainhigh,sediblevegetableoilimport,togetherwiththeoilmadefromimportedsoybeanandrapeseeds,hasaccountedforaround70%ofChina,theenthusiasmoftheChinesefarmersforsoybeangrowinghasbeenraised,,Americansoybeanoutputwitnessedadrasticreduction,resultinginanaggravationofthecontradictionsinglobaloilseedsupplyanddemand,nbyChinaoverrecentfouryearsandtherelativelystablegrainpriceshave,,,seeds,agriculturalfilm,dieselforagriculturaluse,mechanicalworkcostandemploymentcost,itisestimatedthatin2008thetotalcostforgrainproductionpermuwillreachRMB525yuan,anincreaseofbyabout50yuanover2007,anda10%,,thegrainpricesinChinaareobviouslylowerthanthoseonworldmarket,intheworldandtheshortageofglobalfoodsupplyhave,thegapbetweenChinesedo,thewholesalepriceofthehigh-qualitywheatonZhengzhouGrainWholesaleMarketremainedat1,660yuan/ton,being2,000yuanlowerthantheaverageFOBpriceoftheAmericanrubywinterwheatinthesameperiod(US$/ton,equivalenttoRMB3,/ton).InFebruary,thewholesalepriceofthepolishedlong-grainednon-glutinousriceinChinasmajorsalesterritorieswas2,493yuanperton,beingover1,400yuanlowerthantheCIFduty-paidprice(over3,900yuan/ton),theaveragepriceofChinasNortheastcornwas1,130yuan/ton,beingover1,eindrivingupChinesedomesticcommoditypricesWithChinasgrowingdependenceonworldmarketforoilandrawmaterials,in2007thepricesofthestapleproductssuchasironore,nonferrousmetalandcrudeoilrosebyawidemargin,drivingupthemarketpricesofrawmaterials,ardepreciation,thepricesofthepriceofthecrudeoilwillreachUS$—US$,therawmattheprocessingorproductionlinks,theex-factorypricesoftheindustrialproductswillstillrisebyasmallmargin,whichwilldriveupthepricesoftheindustrialconsumergoodsaswellasthehouseholdconsumerprices.LongGuoqiangHowwillglobalsupplychainschangeundertheimpactoftheinternationalfinancialcrisisWhatopportunitiesandchallengeswillthesechangesbringtoChinaWhatpositivemeasuresshouldChinataketosee(DRC)setupaionalcompanies,madecasestudiesontheChina-basedenterprisesofPhilipsandBoeing,issuedquestionnairestoover1,500foreign-investedenterprises,,thetaskforcealsosolicitedop,astthreedecades,theformationandexpansionofglobalsupplychainshas,,theincreasinglyfiercemarketcompetitionhasforcedmultinationalcompaniestofullytapthecomparativeadvantagesofvariouscountriesandre-arrangetheirproduction,marketing,,thevigorousadvanceintradeandinvestmentliberalizationhasgr,therevolutionaryadvanceintechnologyandmlogisticshasgreatlyreducedthecostoftransnationaloperationsandgivenastrongpushtothemod,ericanfamilies,the"re-manufacturing"pursuedbydevelopedcountries,thenewdevelopmenttrendsoflow-carboneconomyandgreeneconomyarisingfromclimateissues,thenew-roundtechnologicalrevolutionarisingfromthefinancialcrisis,theresurgeoftradeprotectionismandthenewtechnologicaltradebarrierssuchas"carbontariff",theadjustmentoftheglobalpatternofeconomicdevelopmentarisingfromtherapiddevelopmentofemergingeconomies,theglobalovercapacityandfiercercompetition,theadjustmentoftherulesonglobalfinance,tradeandinvestment,andthesforglobalsupplychainswil,thebasictrendofglobaltradeandinvestmentliberationisunlikelytochangeandso,multinationalcompanieswillinternationalizetheirRDactivitiesandserviceoutsourcingandwilndbrincrisisera:First,,theconsumerdemandgrowthindevelopedcountrieswillslowdown,thedemandinemergingeconomieswillgrow,thepartialovercapacitywillbecomemoreprominent,,thepost-crisisacquisitionsbetweendevelopedeconomiesarelikelytobeserio%ofthesurveyedenterprisessaytheirinvestmentinChinawillnot%%,theenterprisesinemergingeconomieswilltaptheiramplefundingstrengthandcanintegrateglobalsupplychains,,70%ofthesurveyedenterprisesbelievenewenergiesandlow-carboneconomywillbr,overhalfofthesurveyedenterprisesholdthatcarbontariffandotherme,globalsupplychainsmaybecomemorespatiallyco,"globalsupplychainswillcontinuetodevelopandthestatusofregionalsupplychainswillrise".Third,lsupplychainsofmultinationalcompanies,ercostfactorssuchasprocurement,logisticsandmanagementisrising,,market-orientedsupplychainswillbecomemoreimportantwhilelowcostwillcontinuetobetheprimaryconsiderationwhenmultinationalcompaniesarrangetheipansion,globalsugestoChinaThankstotheeffectiveandpropermeasurestakenbytheChinesegovernmentaftertheoutburstoftheglobalfinancialcrisis,ernalmarkets,mostof,Chinassta,GeneralMotorshasrelocateditsglobaloperationsheadquarterstoShanghai,smostimportantmanufacturingbase,butalsotheworld,itwillbecometheworldssecondlargesteconomyandtheworld,Chinasappealtomultinat,thetopfiveratedbythesurveyedenterprisesarerespectively"domesticmarketpotential","soundinfrastructure","laborcost","thelevelofadmissionforforeigninvestments",and"industrialconcentrationandsupportcapacity".Marketappealhassurpassedlow-costlabortobecomeChina,theintegrationandadjustmentofglobalsupplychainswillbringmajoropportunitiestoChina:ByFengFeiXuWei,ResearchTeamon"Adjustment,TransformationandUpgradingofKeyIndustries",DRCResearchReportNo203,2009Environmentalindustryisageneraltermfortheactivitiesoftechnologyandproductdevelopment,commercialcirculation,resourceutilization,informationserviceandengineeringcontractingdesignedtocontrolenvironmentalpollution,,environmentalindustrymainlyreferstotheend-of-pipetreatmentofenvironmentalissues,includingtheprovisionofproductsandservicesrequiredforpollutioncontrol,emissionreduction,pollutantclearance,,environmentalindustryreferstothewholeprocessofpossibleenvironmentalpollutionandcoversalllinksfromthedesign,,productsandservicesthatcanreduceenvironmentalrisksandminimizepollutionandresourceconsumption,butalsotheactivitiesofresourcemanagement,resourceexploitation,:theproductsandtechnologiesforend-of-pipetreatment,theintegratedutilizationofresources,~2008period,themarketscaleoftheglobalenvironmentalindustryrosefromUS$740billiontoUS$1,050billion,increasingnearly6%ann,theenvironmentalindustryhasmadefastprogressinmarketscale,te,whentheworldisaddressingfinancialcrisisandclimatechangeanddevelopinglow-carboneconomy,theenvironmentalindus8for"greeneconomy"and"greennewdeal",somecountrieshavetakenactionstospureco,theEuropeanUnionwillinvest105billioneurobefore2013tosupportthedevelopmentofgreeneconomyintheEurozone,ofwhich54billioneurowillbeusedtohelpmemevelopmentsurgeafterthefinancialcrisisandthatmodernenvironmentaltechnologieswillbecometheindustryg-termimplicationstoforminganewgrowthareaintheeconomy,promotingt,energyconservationandenvironmentalprotectionhavegainedunprecedentedmomen,Chinacanusepoliciestofurtherspuritsenvironmentalindustry,iftherhythmisproperlycontrolled,sothatitcanbecomeanewstrategicindustrywithbothenvironmentalandeconomicefficiencies,,Chinasenvironmentalindustrypostedatotaloutputvalueof790billionyuan,%ofthecountrysGDP,,thesectorsofenvironmentalequipmentandenvironmentalservicesrespectivelynetted70billionyuanand60billionyuan,%and6%senvironmentalindustryisstillrelativelysmallinscale,~2008period,China%,,or120billionyuanforenvironmentalequipment,100billionyuanforenvironmentalservices,250billionyuanforcleantechnologiesandproducts,scurrentenvironmentalquality,itsenviron,only65%ofurbansewagewastreatedandasmanyas194prefecturecitiesand78%,withlessthan20%,~2015period,investmentsusedforurbansewagetreatment,householdgarbagedetoxification,desulfurizationanddenitrificationfacilitiesareexpectedtoreach450billionyuan,150billionyuan,,investmentsinthefourareaswilltotal756billionyuan,s,theoperationalscalesofthefourareasareexpectedtoreach39billionyuan,16billionyuan,,duringthe2011~2015period,anadditional43billionyuanwillbespentannuallyontheecologicalrestorationofdepletedminesandtheintegratedimprovementoftheheavymetal-co,asChinahasnotfullygraspedcoretechnologies,,desulfurizationequipmentandsewagetreatmentequipment,i,Chinahasnotgraspedthetechnologiesforthecost-effectivetreatmentofsludge,thetreatmentofhigh-densityandindecomposableindustrialwastewater,thecontrolofcoal-firedNOx,themonitoringandremovalofwaterbloom,,Chinastillhastoimportthecontrolchipsforthepowersourcesofelectrostaticprecipitators,theheat-resistantfiltersandpulsevalvesofbagprecipitators,thedenitrificationcatalysts,dgarbageincinerationequipmentarenotsostable.。

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